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Showing posts with the label Constitution

Monetary policy of India and its objectives.

-The policy of controlling the flow of money in an economy is called monetary policy. Its aim is to ensure the economic development and economic stability of the state. In the form of monetary policy, either an expansion policy increases the supply of money in the economy more quickly than normal and the contractionary policy increases the money supply more slowly than normal or it also shrinks, where expansion or contractionary Is known for Expansionary policy has traditionally been used to try to deal with unemployment in a recession by lowering interest rates in hopes that easy credit expansion will entice businesses into contractual policy resulting from distortions and deterioration of asset values The intention is to slow inflation in order to escape. The central bank of all countries makes this policy. Monetary policy in India is made by the RBI.
Objectives of monetary policy
Controlling inflation and currency deflation is by controlling the flow of money.
The flow of money in the…

Role of Self-Help Groups.

- Self-help groups are from small and voluntary groups formed with mutual help They are made to meet their common needs, to get rid of common problems or shortcomings, and to make social and personal changes in it. The initiator of their construction emphasizes social interaction with each other and the personal responsibility of all the members. That is, self-help groups are formed voluntarily by 5- 20 members to fulfill a specific objective. But it may be that a government organization, voluntary organization, or an activist motivates the members to form groups. The purpose of forming self-help groups is to liberate the members from poverty and achieve financial independence. The members of self-help groups are often of equal interest, same-sex, homogeneous, homogeneous, and mutual knowing each other, meaning that there is no inequality in them. The working of the group, the rules, and the decision of the functionaries are done collectively by the SHGs. Forms of primary activity The gr…

Right to Equality in Indian constitution.

Fundamental rights have been provided from Articles 12 to 35 of the Indian Constitution, including equality rights. In fact, the right to equality is one of the major guarantees of the Constitution. It is embodied in Articles 14–16 which collectively includes the general principles of equality and non-discrimination before the law and Articles 17–18. Who collectively carry forward the philosophy of social equality. Article 14 guarantees equality before the law and at the same time provides equal protection of law to all persons within the boundaries of India. In this, the subordination of authority of law is the same for all as well as equal treatment of all in similar circumstances. In the latter the state can classify individuals for legitimate purposes provided there is a reasonable basis for it, which means that the classification is not arbitrary, classification Easy to be based on a method of differentiation among the people to be done, as well as rationalization of the purpose t…

Procedure for impeachment of the President.

Article 61 of the Indian Constitution provides for the process of impeachment to remove the President of India. According to Article 56 (b) of the constitution, the President can be removed by imposing impeachment for violation of the constitution. Article 61 is the procedure in relation to the impeachment of the President.
Impeachment can be brought in any House of Parliament. The resolution must be signed by at least 1/4 of the members of that House. It is necessary to inform the President 14 days in advance by the House. The resolution needs to be passed by a minimum of 2/3 of the members of that House. The resolution passed is referred to as the other House. The second house conducts a preliminary inquiry. President himself or a person appointed by him Can defend by If the House is satisfied with the answer, then the motion ends. Voting takes place when dissatisfied. If the second house also passes it by its 2/3 majority, then, in this case, the President is immediately freed.
Thus A…

What are the Legislative powers of State Governor.

The parliamentary democratic system that has been adopted in India. In it, where the President has been made executive head at the center, in the states, the Governor has been given the executive responsibility. Under Article 153 of the Indian Constitution, a governor has been provided for each state. The post of governor in the state administration is laden with many constitutional obligations. In short, the powers of the governor are mainly executive power, legislative power, ordinance power, power of pardon, and is divided into a discretionary power. Legislative powers are important among these.
Legislative powers
According to Article 174, the Governor has legislative authority. The Governor is an integral part of the Legislature and has the following rights with respect to the legislature-
He can call the session of the State Legislature, adjourn and dissolve the State Legislative Assembly.
If it appears to the Governor that there is no representation of the Anglo-Indian community in …

What are Unitary elements in Indian Constitution.

Elements of the federal system are found in the Indian constitution, but there is also no shortage of unitary elements. Therefore, many times political scholars also say that the Indian Constitution is indeed unitary and federal in nature. Trends are also found in the constitution.
Unitary feature in the Indian constitution
(1) Single citizenship - Dual citizenship is often found in federal constitutions. There, a person is a citizen of the Union as well as a citizen of the state in which he lives, but in India, citizenship is only related to the Union and the states have no citizenship of their own.
(2) Partition of powers in favor of the Center - The division of powers in our constitution is done in such a way that the center has been given more powers than the states. 97 subjects are given in the Union list, which is national Are of importance. Only Parliament has the right to make laws on this list. There are 62 subjects in the state list, which are important for the state, on which t…

Discuss the chief characteristics of the Constitution ofIndia.

Following are the descriptions of the key features of the Indian Constitution:
(1) The Constitution of India is "the longest and written constitution." An important reason for its length is the inclusion of provisions related to both the Union and the State. In it, the distribution of subjects between the Union and the State, the residual powers of the Union are mentioned, as well as the legislative administrative and financial relations of the Union and the State are described in detail. The Constitution currently has 448 Articles, 12 Schedules and 25 Parts.
(2) Its form is semi-perpendicular. The Indian constitution is confederate in normal circumstances, but in specific circumstances it also has the characteristics of unity.
(3) Generally, the Constitutional Statutes lack flexibility and invalidity, but the Indian Constitution has enough flexibility, but not so flexible that any part of the Constitution can be amended at any time. The nature of the Indian Constitution is evo…

What is UPSC ? Write its Functions?

The Union Public Service Commission is an institution established by the Constitution of India to conduct examinations for the appointment of public service officers of the Government of India. Articles 315-323 of the Constitution provide information on the 'Federal Public Service Commission' and a State Public Service Commission for the states. The first Public Service Commission was established on October 1, 1926 AD. The main role of the commission is to select persons for appointments in various central civil services and posts and services common to the center and states (ie All India Services). The headquarters office of the Union Public Service Commission of India is in  Dhaulpur House, New Delhi.
Role  / Functions of UPSC
The following functions and roles have been assigned to the Union Public Service Commission under Articles 320 and 321 of the Constitution-
1 Recruitment through the conduct of competitive examinations on services and posts under the Union.2 Recruitment b…

Examine the utility of advisory jurisdiction of Supreme court

According to Article 124 of the Constitution, a Supreme Court has been arranged for the Union of India. According to which there will be a Supreme Court of India which shall consist of the Chief Justice of India and not more than seven other judges unless Parliament prescribes a larger number. "Parliament conferred its power on the Constitution As per Section 2 of Act No. 11 of 2009, the maximum number of other judges has been increased from 7 to 30. At present, the total number of judges in the Supreme Court is 31 including the Chief Justice.
If the judge in the Supreme Court is deficient for any reason, then the ad hoc judge and retired judge in the Constitution Provision has been made for the appointment of If at any time the quorum of judges of that court to continue the session of the Supreme Court is complete If not, then the Chief Justice of India with the prior consent of the President and after consulting the Chief Justice of the High Court concerned An ad hoc judge for a …

Changes made by Forty Fourth (44h) Constitutional Amendment in Emergency

In Part-18 of the Constitution, Articles 352 to 360 provide for the President to get wide powers when there is a state of emergency in the country. President to declare an emergency in the country The right is obtained under the following three extraordinary circumstances-
1 War arises in the event of an external invasion or armed rebellion (Article 352). 2 A crisis arising in the state of failure of constitutional rule in a state (Article 356) 3 Financial stability or credit crisis (Article 360)
44th Amendment in emergency provisions under Constitution Amendment Act 1978 - imposed by then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi in June 1975. There was intense opposition to the Emergency throughout the country. Civil rights were violated during the Emergency and the popular government channeled into an autocratic and capricious government. After the Lok Sabha elections in 1977, when the Janata Party government came, it amended the Constitution Tried to bring some such provisions that the Central Govern…

Critically examine Article 368 of Indian Constitution.

The constitution-makers have neither made the process of amending the constitution of India very easy nor very complicated very easy so that no autocratic power can rapidly amend it to its own interest and not make it too complicated so that in time Also in the changing economic social environment, desired changes can be made to meet the new expectations. The power to amend it was delegated to Parliament which represents all the people of India. Parliament can also amend the constitution not by a simple majority but only by a special majority. If the amendment is related to the federal structure of India or the interest of the states, then approval of the states has also been made necessary. Article 368, referring to the power and procedure of the Parliament to amend the Constitution, states that the Parliament, using its constitutional power, may amend it by adding, changing or repealing any provision of the Constitution. The amendment of the constitution can be initiated only by intr…

Judicial System at State Level.

According to Article 214 of the Constitution, there will be a High Court for each state. Also, this arrangement has been made in Article 231. That Parliament may, by law, establish a single High Court for two or more States or for two or more States and a Union Territory. Constitution of High Court-Appointment of Judges-Every High Court as per Article 216, Chief Justice and Shall consist of such other Judges as the President may consider necessary to be appointed from time to time. Appointment of Executive Chief Justice - It is mentioned under Article 223.
Qualifications- Article 217 requires the following qualifications to become a High Judge. (1) Be a citizen of India. (2) To serve in any judicial post for at least 10 years. Serving as an advocate in a High Court or other courts for at least 10 consecutive years.
Subordinate Courts - There are three types of courts in each district - Civil Court, Criminal Court, Land Revenue Court. They function under the supervision and control of the H…

Important features of Domestic Violence Act, 2005.

- Major provisions of the Domestic Violence Act 2005 - Violence within the family of women is intended to provide more "effective protection" to the rights guaranteed under the Constitution and the Domestic Violence Act with a view to remove the crimes related to and based on it. Had to bring 2005. This Act is applicable to the whole of India except Jammu and Kashmir. It has some five chapters and 37 sections. It is implemented on 26 October 2006.
The following provisions have been made in this.
1. It defines aggrieved person, respondent, compensation order ржеা, custody order, domestic incident report, domestic kinship, dowry, medical facility, monetary relief, safety order, residence order.
2. Section 3 defines domestic violence whereby the person (aggrieved) who is incapacitated harms life, limbs, health by any act, omission or functioning or conduct by the respondent (man). Threats or attempts include physical abuse, sexual abuse, verbal and emotional abuse along with economi…

Utility of National Human Rights Commission.

- National Human Rights Commission was constituted on 12 October 1993 by an ordinance by the President. This ordinance was enacted by the Indian Parliament in place of an Act on 8 January 1994. The Commission works under the purview of this Act. It is headquartered in New Delhi. Commission itself or on the basis of an application Investigates some sort of human rights. The main function of this commission is to protect human rights and develop a human rights culture in the country. The utility of the National Human Rights Commission can be expressed as follows:
1. India is a vast country. Here the complexity of applied social, political, and economic problems is more. Similarly the laws in our country Violation is also high.

2. The Supreme Court is a protector of fundamental rights, but there are many cases that are not in the category of fundamental rights.
3. All courts of India suffer from an excess of work, hence a separate commission is necessary for the disposal of human rights cases…

Role of Comptroller and Auditor General in parliamentary democracy

- Article 148 of the Constitution provides for the post of a Comptroller and Auditor General in India. It conducts an unbiased examination of all income-expenditure of the Union and State Governments. The following provisions have been made in the Constitution to protect the fairness of this post.
(i) It can be removed from the post only on the manner and grounds on which the Judge of the Supreme Court is removed (Article 148 (1)). That is, he cannot be removed from his post unless by a majority of his member number and members present and voting by each House of Parliament on the basis of proven misconduct or incapacity. At least two-thirds of the presidents may not have given their assent in the same session on inclusion supported by the majority.
(ii) Determination of its salary and other conditions of service by the Parliament. Goes, not by the government (Article 148 (3)).
(ii) He shall not be eligible for any other post under the Government of India or any State Government after his…

Provisions given in Madhya Pradesh Lok Sewa Guarantee Act, 2010.

Necessary action is taken against the Guarantee of Provision of Public Services Act 2010 and the rules made thereunder and notification of services related to the Public Health Engineering Department. The following provisions are described under this Act and Rules being effective from September 25, 2010-
(1) The departmental subcontractor for these services who are the effects of the work related to hand pump maintenance shall be designated officers.
(2) Under this Act, the secondary appellate officer shall be an executive engineer. Therefore, Executive Engineers related to all the rural areas of the state will get the information related to the facilities provided outside their office also and all the Executive Engineers will have these facilities available on time by every Assistant Engineer and Deputy Engineer under them. Will take responsibility of getting it done.
(3) The format of the notice board for setting up outside the Assistant Engineer Offices. The format to be placed outside…

Explain the structure and functions of the National Commission for Scheduled Tribes in India.

The National Commission for Scheduled Tribes is a constitutional body. Joint Article by 65th Constitution Amendment Act. Establishment of Caste and Tribe Commission 338, but when the Ministry of Separate Tribal was constituted to adequately protect the interests of the tribes, the Government also established a separate Tribal Commission. Has taken steps so 89th S.No. (2003) Act. An independent National Commission for Scheduled Tribes was established under 338 (A).
director Vice president Three members
They are appointed by the President by order and stamped letter. And their tenure and service conditions are also decided there.
1. To review the constitutional protection that tribes have received. 2. To give advice to the Government to give practical form to the rights given to the tribes in the constitution. Examining the rights of 3 tribes in case of violation. 4. Which tribe Is included in the tribe. To advise the President in this regard. 5. To make suggestions to overcome the …

Clarify the legal form of the domestic violence and the protection of women from it in India.

- Domestic violence is called domestic violence. The physical, mental, emotional, verbal, psychological, or sexual abuse of a woman by someone with whom the woman has family ties is involved in domestic violence.
Legal Definition of Domestic Violence
(1) The Protection of Women Against Domestic Violence Act, 2005 'defines domestic violence - any behavior of the respondent, forgetting or appointing someone else to work, considered domestic violence Will go. (2) To cause harm or injury or to endanger the mental, physical or mental health of the victim, health, life, organs or interests or to have the intention of doing so and includes physical, sexual, oral And includes emotional and economic exploitation; (3) To torture, harm or endanger the woman or her relatives to compel the illegal demand for dowry or other property or valuable security or (4) the effect of the threat given by any of the conduct contained in the phrase (a) or (b) above to the victim or near relatives; or (5) To injure …

Write a critical note on the working and problems of rural local self-government in State.

The form of Panchayati Raj / Rural Autonomous Institutions in India has been in existence since ancient times. Efforts to give it an orderly and constitutional form started since independence but it has been made practical in the Constitution in 73rd ed. And 74th no. The Act was passed in 1992, which fulfilled the dream of establishing democracy at the grassroots level.
Local self-government is the fountainhead of decentralized governance and 'participatory democracy', which also encourages political awareness and empowerment of the common man.
Constitution and functioning of rural autonomous institutions - Section 243 (B) provide for the formation of panchayats. In states where the population will be more than 20 lakh, there are three levels of panchayat functions, whereas) It will not have intermediate levels in states with less population. (1) Gram Sabha / Gram Panchayat at the lowest level (2) Intermediate Panchayat - Kshetra Panchayat (3) District level - District Panchayat