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Showing posts with the label Economics

Powers and functions of National Disaster Management Authority

The National Institute of Disaster Management, established under the Disaster Management Act 2005, has been assigned the nodal national responsibility for human resource development, capacity building, training, research, documentation, and policy advocacy in the field of disaster management. Indian Public Administration on 16 October 2003 The National Institute of Disaster Management, advanced from the National Center for Disaster Management, is rapidly moving towards fulfilling its mission of creating a disaster-tolerant India by developing and promoting a culture of prevention and preparedness at all levels.
The Central is a general body comprising eminent scholars, scientists, and physicians This institute is headed by 42 members. Apart from the secretaries of various nodal ministries and departments of the Government of India and the State Governments and heads of national-level scientific research and technical organizations. The institute has a 16-member governing body, headed by t…

Critically analyse the Population Policy of India, 2000.

In February 2000, the government announced the National Population Policy 2000. This policy was followed by Dr. M.S. Is based on the report of an expert team formed under the chairmanship of Swaminathan. The government finalized it after a public debate. Its immediate objective is to establish a proper service system for the care of reproductive and child health and to fulfill the requirements of the infrastructure of contraceptives and health facilities. The objective of its scale is to achieve a total fertility rate of 2.1 by the year 2010. If the current trend of fertility continues, this objective will be achieved only by 2026. The long-term objective is to achieve population stability by 2045. The following steps will be taken to achieve the policy objective-
1. To make school education free and compulsory till the age of fourteen.
2. To reduce the number of boys and girls who have dropped out of school in schools by 20 percent.
3. Reducing infant mortality rate to 30 per thousand l…

How Skill Development, 2015 can tackle the problem of unemployment

Unemployment refers to the situation in which a laborer is qualified and ready to work, but does not get employment. In other words, unemployment is a situation where a person fails to find work despite being able and ready to work, which provides him work or livelihood.
The ratio of the number of unemployed persons to the total workforce is unemployment.
Reasons for unemployment- The problem of unemployment in India has taken a shocking situation since independence. There are many such components. Those who have a major role in increasing unemployment, some of the factors are described as follows-
1. High Population Growth Rate - The country's rapid growth over the past few decades. The increasing population has rapidly (furiously) compounded the problem of unemployment. Due to the rapidly increasing population of the country, each There has been an increase in the magnitude of unemployment during the Plan period, which created a terrible (dangerous) situation. The growth rate of popu…

Write an essay on regional imbalances and migration in India.

There is no doubt that India is one of the fastest-growing large economies today, but it is also true that among many problems, rising regional inequality and migration are also major problems. In fact, regional inequality should also be linked to migration because people in areas where there will be unemployment, less means of income, no basic amenities, will migrate to urban convenience areas. Hence the problem of regional inequality and migration is interlinked. At the time of independence, there were wide disparities between different sectors, which could be clearly seen in the area of ​​per capita income, per capita consumption, education and healthcare employment and infrastructure, etc. This inequality held serious signs due to initial political instability. It was, therefore, felt that states would have to play a major role in eradicating inequality. This commitment was reflected in the constitution and planning objectives, but achieving the objectives was not an easy task due…

evaluate the issues of buffer stock and food security in India.

Among the challenges that India is facing today, food security is one of the most prominent challenges. Rapidly increasing population, rising food prices and the threat of climate change are challenges that need to be dealt with on a war footing. Swami Vivekananda once said "the person who is struggling to fill his stomach Philosophism cannot be explained. "If India is to be included in the list of developed nations, it must ensure its food security. Given the enthusiasm and enthusiasm that India has shown in the last few years in dealing with various problems A better future can be expected.
Food security has become a national objective for all since independence. While earlier food security was meant to be more bread available, today, food security means access to physical, economic and social conditions, besides balanced diet, clean drinking water, clean environment and primary health maintenance.
India always showed seriousness on the issue of food security and this is the …

Give the status of India's public debt after 1991 economic reforms.

The year 1991 after independence proved a milestone in India's economic history. Earlier, the country was going through a severe economic crisis and this crisis forced the policymakers of India to implement the new economic policy. The situation created by the crisis prompted the government to formulate policies aimed at bringing price stabilization and structural reforms. Stabilization policies were aimed at correcting weaknesses, thereby fixing fiscal deficit and reverse the balance of payments. Structural reforms had bypassed rigid rules, due to which reforms were also implemented in various sectors of the Indian economy and as a result of these policies, today India could also help a world-class institution like International Monetary Fund.
Main objectives of the new economic policy of 1991
The main objective behind the inauguration of the new economic policy by the then Union Finance Minister, Dr. Manmohan Singh in 1991 is as follows.
I Indian economy had to be 'brought into…

Write a brief note on working of Unit Trust of India.

The Unit Trust of India was established on 1 February 1964 under the 'UNIT TRUST ACT, 1963' with the aim of mobilizing scattered small savings of the common people in the industries for the economic development of the country. Through this trust, units are saved by selling units to the public and the collected amount is invested in productive works. This investment is done in the shares of companies and letters of credit. Net profit earned from the investment is distributed to the unitholder. This act of appropriation on the basis of profitability, while protecting the wealth of the general public, on one hand, seeks to provide adequate returns to it. It also provides support in financing of other industrial establishments. This trust is authorized to acquire capital by selling Units in addition to its initial capital. This type of capital is called 'Unit Capital'.
In our country, UTI has developed a trend of saving in the general public by encouraging savings, especial…

State the current position of money market in Madhya Pradesh.

In finance parlance, the currency market refers to the global financial market for borrowing and lending short-term debt. It provides short term cash / liquidity funding for the global financial system. The money market is where short term tenure obligations such as treasury bills, commercial paper / paper and bankers' approvals etc. are bought and sold. The money market consists of financial institutions and money or credit dealers, who either undertake borrowing or lending. Participants borrow or lend for a short period, usually up to thirteen months. Money market trading of short-term financial instruments is commonly called "paper". This is in contrast to the relatively long-term capital capital market, which is supplied by bonds and shares.
There are banks in the money market and origin, which borrow and lend to each other using commercial paper, repurchase agreements and similar instruments. In fact, the money market is a center where monetary assets or securities o…

the importance of agriculture in the economy of Madhya Pradesh.

Agriculture is the main source of Madhya Pradesh's economy. 74.73 percent of the state's population lives in rural areas and is dependent on farms. Approx 49 percent of the state's land is cultivable. The agriculture here contributes not only to the state but also to the economy of the country. | A large part of the state's people are earning their livelihood through agriculture or other agricultural-related industries. About 74 percent of the state's population lives in the village, which is directly related to agriculture. Of 2011 According to statistics, 42.79 percent of the total working population is engaged in agricultural enterprises (farmers and agricultural laborers), but about one-third of the state's population is working in favor of agricultural workers, this employment is "seasonal" and workers. There is wastage of an increased number of people, due to which neither the living standard of the villagers here is improving nor this working cl…

State the main provisions of Competition Act, 2002.

The Competition Act 2002 was enacted by Parliament on 13 January 2003 to create fair competition in the economy and to provide 'equal opportunities to all' in this context. The Competition Commission of India (CCI) was established by the Central Government from October 14, 2003. After this, the Act was amended by the Competition (Amendment) Act 2007. On May 20, 2009, of the anti-competitive agreement and key conditions.
The provisions of the Act relating to misuse were notified. This Act applies to the whole of India except Jammu and Kashmir. The Competition Commission of India is fully functional with a Chairman and six members. The Competition Commission focuses on four key points -  anti-competitiveness agreements,  misuse of key conditions,  combination regulation,  and competition advocacy. 
Practical act for checking the competition Emphasizes approach. This is different from the approach of the MRTP Act in which the structural approach was adopted. In view of the economic devel…

State the importance of road transport in the economy of Madhya Pradesh.

- The first step of the economic development of any state is the development of traffic routes, the economy can be developed only by developing the transport system. Transport was developed in Madhya Pradesh with the same purpose.

Roads play an important role in the development of any country/region. The State Government has given full attention to the construction of roads and their importance in the state during the last 5 years. The State Road Transport Corporation was established in the year 1962 under the Traffic Corporation Act 1950 in the state. Its main objective was to provide efficient, accessible, and affordable transport facilities to the passengers. The means of transport in the state can be divided into three parts - road, rail. And the air. Bus and train services cover most parts of Madhya Pradesh. M.P. According to the Economic Survey Report 2016-17, the state's long road network includes 46 national highways.
Major interstate bus terminals are located at Bhopal, Ind…

How is human development index calculated?

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistical index of life expectancy, education, and income indices, prepared by the three bases of human development. It was called by economist Mehboob-ul Haq , Supported by economist Amatya Sen in 1990 and published by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP).
Health and longevity, educational level, and subsistence through three dimensions in the Human Development Index (HDI) calculation till 2009, life expectancy at birth, gross enrollment ratio and adult literacy rate, and per capita gross domestic product (PPP based), respectively Level is measured. Since 2010, the UNDP has used a new method for calculating HDI for human development report which includes three indicators:
1. Life Expectancy Index (LEI) - Life expectancy has been kept at the time of pre-birth for measurement of health and longevity.
2. Education Index (EI) - It is based on two new figures: (i) Average years of schooling (MYS- Mean Years of Schooling) - Years spent…

The basic characteristics of the Indian economy .

A developing economy is an economy leading to development, though all the economies of the world fall into this category, the indicator is used to indicate an economy that is trying to move from a backward state to high growth. For example, India, China, Brazil, etc. are headed for development.
Basic features of the Indian economy as a developing economy-
The Indian economy has been a prosperous and developed economy since ancient times. In ancient and medieval India, the dealings with various countries were beneficial. But as soon as it came under British rule in the 18th century, the country became a true figure of poverty. The condition of the Indian economy was extremely pathetic at the time of independence. At the same time, under the leadership of Pandit Nehru, the Indian economy started moving on the path of development from a planned search to a mixed economy, followed by a period of liberalization from 1991, making the present-day Indian economy the third-largest economy in the…

"Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act".

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) is an employment guarantee scheme implemented in India, enacted by legislation on 25 August 2005. The scheme provides 100 days of employment every financial year to those adult members of any rural household who are prepared to do unskilled wages related to public work at a statutory minimum wage of Rs 220 per day.The Act was launched with the objective of increasing the purchasing power of rural people, mainly for those living in rural India. Semi-skilled or non-skilled work, whether they are below the poverty line or not. About one-third of the assigned workforce is made up of women. The government is planning to open a call center, which can be contacted on the duty-free number 1800-345-22-44 at the start. Initially, it was called the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MNREGA),But it was renamed on October 2, 2009.CriticismsThe scheme has also been severely criticized and argued that this scheme is no more effec…

Critically evaluate various problems and challengesfaced by our Indian economy.

- The first challenge for the Indian economy is that the current budget deficit in the country has increased considerably as a percentage of GDP. Due to populist promises inspired by politics, it is becoming difficult to curb it. This budget deficit will have an impact on inflation and ultimately many important public interests to balance the budget. Plans may also have to be postponed. This is bound to have an adverse effect on the ability and income of the common people. So now it's necessary It has become that the government should put a stop to unhelpful, populist announcements, and make concerted efforts to balance the budget.
The second challenge is the problem of increasing trade credit in the center and states. Although several resolutions have been passed to keep the Banat in balance and to limit the extent of trade credit, many of which have also been given legal status, the governments of the Center and the States are continuously taking loans from the market And due to th…

Critically evaluate the Cooperative Movement in Madhya Pradesh.

In the last 103 years of cooperatives in Madhya Pradesh, the Cooperative Movement has made a significant contribution to the all-round development of the economically backward weaker sections of the society by removing its flaws. The cooperative credit facility has been extended to villages in far-flung areas. Cooperatives to increase agricultural production, farmers get the best manure, improved seeds, pesticides, plant protection, agricultural machinery, food distribution system in the public distribution system, purchase of farmers' produce at support price, consumers Has been instrumental in housing facility, fisheries, dairy development, forest produce, weavers, seed production, educational training, and construction and operation of industrial units.
Under the efficient guidance of Chief Minister Shri Shivraj Singh Chouhan and Cooperative Minister Shri Gopal Bhargava, many decisions have been effectively implemented in the interest of farmers. Today, the cooperative movement i…

steps taken by SEBI to strengthen the capital market in india.

(SEBI-Securities and Exchange Board of India) ie 'Securities and Regulation Boi' was established on 12 April 1988 as a non-constitutional body. After the establishment of SEBI, on 30 January 1992, the Government of India gave SEBI a constitutional status through an ordinance in Parliament. SEBI's headquarter is located in Mumbai and SEBI also has some regional offices which are located in Delhi, Chennai, Kolkata, and Ahmedabad respectively.
Director The present director of SEBI is mr. Ajay Tyagi As you may have known, SEBI has a Chairman who is nominated by the Government of India. Their tenure is for 3 years or till the age of 65, whichever is earlier. The remaining four members are also elected by the Government of India. Of these, 2 members are knowledgeable of the Ministry of Finance and 2 are knowledge of the law. The remaining 1 member is from the RBI (RBI), they are selected from among the RBI officials.
When SEBI was established in 1988, the initial registration of SEBI…

What are the objectives of Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojna (PMGSY)?

On December 25, 2000, the fully centrally sponsored Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana was implemented to ensure rural road connectivity to economic and social services. Its objectives are:
(1) The main objective of this scheme is to connect the villages with all-weather paved roads.
(2) Under this scheme, the unit is not 'Rehabilitation Village' or 'Panchayat' but 'Habitat', which means such a population group that does not change the place for a long period.
(3) This plan also includes the construction of bridges and small bridges under construction of the paved roads.
(4) Such habitations will be selected for road construction where the population is more than 500. Whereas in the mountainous or tribal-dominated areas, the minimum limit has been fixed for the population of 250.
Thus, this scheme is being operated with the objective of benefiting about 83.3 crore population of the country, which is the rural population of the country.

What is the meaning of demographic dividend? What is Its importance?

- Demographic dividend or demographic benefit indicates the positive and sustainable development of human resources in the economy. It shows the meaning of the growing young and working population (from 15 to 64 years) in the population structure and creation of increased quantity in production.
Importance of demographic dividend-
(1) Population is our largest capital. According to the Indian census, we can say that the share of the young and working population in this resource is constantly expanding.
(2) As a result of demographics, dependence is increasing only on the working population, while the workload on children and the elderly is decreasing.
(3) In view of the demographic dividend, according to a scholar FICCI, at present India stands at a historic juncture where it is in a position to reap immense economic benefits for the next several decades.
(4) Increased population and rapid growth rate due to demographic dividend has created a pyramid, which will benefit the country for man…

What are the main indicators of Human Development Index? Elaborate.

Human development is measured as the Human Development Index, HDI. It is a simple composite indicator set on the basic achievements of human development (composite indicator) and ranks them based on the progress made by various countries in the fields of health, education and access to resources. This range is based on a score between 0 and 1, which a country, in its important indicators of human development, Derives from the record. The Human Development Index is measured by the UNDP (United Nation Development Program). Of UNDP The headquarter is in New York. It was established on 1965. Let us know what is the Human Development Index and what measures are used to measure it?
The life expectancy at birth has been chosen to determine the health-health indicator. This means that people get the opportunity to live long and healthy lives. The higher the life expectancy, the higher the index of development (HDI).
Education- Education here refers to adult literacy rate and gross enrollment ratio…