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Showing posts with the label Indian History

Why is Akbar called a national monarch ? Explain in detail.

Among the emperors who have impressed themselves with their victory flag or their personality on the land of India, the Mughal emperor Akbar has got the best and proud place not only in the history of India but in the history of the world. In fact, Humayun was succeeded by his son Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar. Akbar was born (in Humayun's exile period) on October 15, 1542 AD to Humayun's Shia wife Hamida Banu Begum in the palace of King Veerasal of Amarkot in Sindh. At the time of Humayun's death, Akbar along with his mentor Bairam Khan Alexander in Punjab Was busy in the campaign against Sur. Bairam Khan, while presenting foresight, on the same day on the throne of bricks in a garden (14 February 1556 AD). After completing the coronation ceremony of Akbar, he was declared Emperor.
Although Akbar had many complex problems after the coronation, Akbar has the distinction of being the national emperor of India. During his reign, unity and harmony were established in all areas of p…

Why did Gandhiji accepted the partition of the country

President Mahatma Gandhi was against the partition of India and he did not want to allow the partition of India under any circumstances, but the immediate Due to the worsening circumstances, Gandhi accepted partition of the country. In fact, many people gave various suggestions to satisfy the Muslims and to keep India undivided. A scheme was created by Sir Tej Bahadur Sapru. Rajagopalachari gave his on 10 July 1944 In this proposal, the right to decide to be natural to India was accepted. Rajaji's proposal was blessed by Mahatma ji. After this, Gandhiji sent a letter to Jinnah on 24 September 1944 Wrote Wrote the terms of partition to Jinnah in the letter. Gandhiji did not recognize the two-nation theory. But they were ready for partition on the basis that the Muslims, where they are in absolute majority, are willing to stay away from the rest of India.
He wrote - I have a difference of opinion with you about Aadhaar, yet I can recommend it to the Congress and the country to accept th…

Throw light on the social conditions of the later Vedic age (1000 B.C.-600 B.C.)

- North Vedic period (1000-600 BC) In Indian history, the period in which the Samveda, Yajurveda and Atharva Veda and the creation of Brahmanical texts, Aranyakas and Upanishads are called post-Vedic period. The painted gray pottery was typical of this period, as the inhabitants here used clay painted and brown bowls and plates. They ironUsed to use weapons as well. 1000 BC Iron equipment has been obtained in Gandhara, Pakistan. There are iron implements found in the grave along with the dead. 800 BC It was used in the Ganges-Yamuna Doab around. 700 sites of painted gray pottery have been found in North Doab. In the later Vedic period, the occupations of the Rigvedic period became the basis of social structure. The post-Vedic society was clearly divided into four vowas (Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras). Although the basis of their division was karma, but when these characters were stratified, the division of the varna was born gradually. The rituals of yagyas started to bec…

Analyse the role of Arya Samaj in the development of nationalism.

Arya Samaj occupies an important place in Indian history and literature of the nineteenth century. Such a wide and subtle change did not occur even in the medieval period due to the contact with the religion of Islam. On the one hand, India became a slave of a remotely situated caste in the nineteenth century, and on the other, he gained new consciousness by taking advantage of the western knowledge and scientific inventions, and rejuvenated the medieval and many mythical evils, leaving the laziness of life tied to practices and traditions. Of. History bears witness to the fact that it was expressed as a conflict between East and West in a situation of political and economic slavery, ie, the struggle of Indian spirituality and western materiality. Political and economic consciousness was only part of that consciousness. Maharishi Dayanand Saraswati (1825 1883) is a pioneer of nineteenth century social and religious reformers. He founded the Aryasamaj in Mumbai on 10 April 1875 AD (Cha…

Evaluate Shershah as a ruler.

Sher Shah Suri was an Indian born Pathan who defeated Humayun in 1540 and established the Suri Empire in North India. Sher Shah Suri neither worked as a soldier for Mahal Babur, who promoted him to the commander of army and then appointed the Governor of Bihar. In 537, when Humayun was on a distant expedition, Sher Shah attacked Bengal Had captured Suri dynasty. Sher Shah's childhood name was 'Farid'. Subedar of South Bihar Haar Khan Lohani gave him the title of 'Sher Khan' and appointed his son Jalal Khan as guardian to kill a lion. Sher Khan assumed the title of 'Hazrat Ali' in 1529 AD after defeating Nusrat Shah, the ruler of Vagal. In 1530 AD, by marrying Naaz Khan's widow 'Ladmalika', she not only captured the powerful banana of Chunar, but also gained a lot of wealth. After defeating Humayun in the Battle of Chausa (1539 AD), he assumed the title of 'Sher Shah' and taught the name of his name and played coins. Horshah defeated Hamayu…

Write a note on the decline of Indus Valley Civilization.

Indus Valley Civilization (3300 BC to 1700 BC) is one of the major civilizations of the ancient river valley civilizations of the world. It is also known as Harappan civilization and 'Indus-Saraswati civilization'. is . It developed along the banks of the Indus and Ghaghyar / Hakra (ancient Saraswati). Mohenjodaro, Kalibanga, Lothal, Dholavira, Rakhigarhi, and Hiappa were its major centers. This civilization was spread in the Indus River Valley, hence it was named Indus Valley Civilization. Due to the rise of cities for the first time, it is also called the first urbanization. Due to the use of bronze for the first time, it is also called Bronze Civilization. 1400 centers of Indus Valley Civilization have been discovered, of which 925 centers are in India. In fact, the Sandhav civilization was a developed urban civilization of its period. Which was spread over a large area  Different scholars have presented different views in relation to how this civilization flourished in a wi…

What were the causes of the First War of Independence of 1857.

- As a result of dense policies of British Empire expansion and economic exploitation in India, husband discontent with British rule was emerging in different sections of society. The fury of Indians was visible from time to time in various places in the form of military revolts or mass rebellions. Regarding the reasons for the revolution of 1857, the Anglo historians have described military discontent and fat Cartus as the main reason for the revolution. But modern Indian history cars prove that the reason was hidden in the history of Mangal Pandey for more than 100 years. The fat cartridges or military discontent acted as a spark and ignited unintended explosive material. Therefore, the details of the reasons for the first freedom struggle of 1857 are as follows:
(1) Political dissatisfaction - Every policy related to the expansion of the British Empire was creating an atmosphere of fear and doubt, that is, the subsidiary treaty of Lord Wellesley, the principle of the best of Lord He…

Methods adopted by the Ashoka for the propagation of Buddhism

-Samrat Ashoka was not a follower of Buddhism earlier. According to Divyavad, when Ashoka attained the throne, he was very cruel and cruel. His instinct of what he experienced in Kalinga-Vijay Changed absolutely. Ashoka took initiation of Buddhism probably eight years after sitting on the throne. After embracing Buddhism, Ashoka traveled to all Buddhist pilgrimages. The name of the Buddhist Bal Acharya who initiated Ashoka into Buddhism is 'Upagupta'. Nav Bhakti Factor near Upagupta Mathura Urumund lived on the mountain. When the king heard about the scholarship of these Acharyas and the allegiance of a legend, then according to the advice of the ministers, Upagupta was invited to come to Patilaputra. On the invitation of Ashoka, he came to Pataliputra from Mathura and under his guidance, Ashoka started a pilgrimage. From Pataliputra, he first went to those places in Champaran district, where 5 huge stone pillars of Ashoka have been found. From there to the Himalayan regions On t…

What were the helpful factors in the independence of india

- A description of the supporting elements in India's independence is as follows-
(1) Communal riots and mass movements - Communal riots and mass movements have put the British officials to sleep. The most important thing is that the mass movement kept the British rule going in India. Made impossible. Communalism served as an arsenal of the policy of 'divide and rule' for the imperialist power, but communalism and mass movements in the coming days caused chaos in the country and it became difficult for the British to maintain peace in the country.
(2) During the Second World War and the challenge to British power, British rule tried for Indian support but they did not succeed and the Indian public's opposition to the government deepened and the Congress led the Quit India Movement. Therefore, leaving India now remains the only option for the colonial government.
(3) Unsuitable Indian colony - The empire's steel structure was shattered during the war. European soldiers …

What do you know about Avantibai ? Write in short.

Avantibai was the queen of Ramgarh (Mandla) who is known for valor during the freedom struggle. Avantibai was the queen of Ramgarh, a small principality in Mandla district. Rani Avanti Bai's husband Raja Laxman Singh was the last king of Ramgarh. After his death, he became the ruler of Ramgarh. It should be known that at the time of the death of Rani Avantibai's husband, her son was minor and mentally in charge of ruling. For this reason, the British rule took the manor of Ramgarh. Rani Avantibai was the widow of Laxman Singh, but the British appointed a tehsildar to look after the administration here. Rani Avantibai was angry with the British for this reason. For this reason Avantibai in the revolution of 1857 ran away . The Rani's army took a pledge to free the state from the British, by steaming the eyes of the British state policy on the state. His army forced the British commander warden to apologize at Khairi village on the border of Mandla city. The British general w…

Write a short note on Nurjahan. Who was Nurjahan

-Nur Jahan whose real/real name was Mehrunnisa, his father's name was Mirza Gyasbeg. Gyasbeg's father was the ruler's minister. After the death of his father, Nirja Gyasbeg came to the family of Hindustan due to economic conditions and adverse conditions. Nur Jahan was born in Kandhar. Mehrunnisa grew up as a beautiful beauty. Mehrunnissa at the age of 17 in 1594 Married to a brave young man named Ali Quli. He was recruited as a soldier in the army of Abdurrahim Khankhana. After killing a lion, he was later given the title of 'Lion Afghan'. In 1606, Qutubuddin was made the Subedar of Bengal in place of King Mansingh due to continuous news of Vindroh and conspiracy in Bengal. As soon as Subedar, Qutubuddin attacked Sher Afghan and in the meantime, Sher Afghan was put in the service of Salima Begum, a widow of death (1607). Jahangir married her in 1611. Jahangir conferred upon him the title of 'Nurmahal' and later 'Nur Jahan'. When Nur Jahan was marrie…

Mention the prominent buildings built during the Mughal period.

-Major buildings constructed during the Mughal period are mentioned below-
(1) Humayun's Tomb - It was constructed during the reign of Akbar. It is the first important building of the Mughal period. It is located in Delhi. It was built in 1564 under the supervision of Haji Begum, wife of Iranian interests Humayun.
(2) Agra Fort- Agra Fort is particularly famous among the forts. Most of the buildings of this fort have been ruined, however, Jahangiri Mahal is left to say their glory. This two-storied square building is of red stone. There is also marble work in the interior. This palace seems to have a Hindu king's palace due to its high Hindu influence. The forts of Lahore and Allahabad were also built by Akbar.
(3) Fatehpur Sikri- It was 22 miles away from Agra that Akbar built the city of his dreams, Fatehpur Sikri. This is where Jahangir was born.
(4) Sikandra- Akbar's mausoleum built in Sikandra, 5 miles from Agra, was started by Akbar himself. This was done by Jahangir in …

Explain the reasons of the popularity of Buddhism.

- The backdrop of the 6th century BCE religious reform movement was ready by the end of the later Vedic period. The environment of erstwhile social tension The popularity of Buddhism increased due to the extensive changes in the economic field and the sacrificial religious beliefs that were sacrificial. Similarly, due to public love, the following are:
(1) Social causes - complex varna system and stressful social life. The class system got complicated from the later Vedic period. Its basis Karma is not born. The society is clearly divided into two classes viz. In which Brahmins and Kshatriyas were divided into Vaishyas and Shudras without any means. The condition of the Vaishyas was becoming economically strong due to the permanent system of agriculture and the development of currency and the development of trade, but they did not have the highest respect. The worst situation was the Shudras who were considered servants of the three varnas. At the same time, the educational rights of wom…

Discuss in short Balban's theory of kingship.

- Balban was the first Sultan of Delhi Sultanate to explain his revenue theory in detail. The important elements of his revenue theory were-
(1) Dynasties i.e. the king should belong to the dynasty.
(2) The revenue of Balavan consisted of the divine doctrine of which the Sultan's place comes after the Prophet. In such a situation, the work done by him to the image of God is justified.
(3) Balban described autocracy as a part of revenue. Balban's basis of autocracy was based on the divine structure. Balban's "Sultan's office is a living symbol of autocracy."
(4) Balban established a distinction between persons of higher and lower clans, ie, the emphasis on ethnic superiority and blood purity in Balvan's revenue. Thus Balavan introduced the concept of royal descent into revenue theory.
(5) Balavan's revenue theory was influenced by the Persian tradition.
(6) Balvan's revenue emphasizes the dignity of the ruler, but here Balvan has emphasized or considered…

Write down the reasons for the decline of the Mughal Empire?

- The Mughal Empire founded by Babur (1526) fell after Aurangzeb's death (1707). The reasons for this were- 1. Aurangzeb's policies and war - Aurangzeb was responsible for the decline of the Mughal state Cuteness and anti-Hindu nature were the main reasons. He made the Katas, Rajputs, Marathas, Mikvas, etc. his enemy due to his fanatic policy. Aurangzeb fought wars with various kingdoms in the south for 25 years to subjugate South India to Delhi, in which he had to suffer the immense loss of wealth and mass. These wars rocked the roots of the empire.
2. Excess of taxes - Mughals imposed heavy taxes on the subjects for their pleasures and wars. Those who became very difficult to repay. There was discontent among farmers and the general public.
3. Large empire- The vastness of the Mughal Empire outside India and India also led to the downfall. A specific kingdom can only be operated by a powerful center. The weak center led to the collapse of the Mughal Empire. Akbar kept the empire …

Describe the modern rural economy after independence.

After independence, half a century has passed, according to the population figures of 2001 Even today 72.2 percent of the total population of India lives in the village, that is, 7 out of every 10 people live in the village. Even today India is a country in the village and the economy here is predominantly agricultural. Agriculture accounts for only 26 percent of the country's gross product. The economic growth of the country has been accelerated through the five-year plans and the rural economy has started changing the form of the village, which is not untouched by this.
Characteristics of the rural economy after independence 1. Changes in the structure of the rural community - After independence, many changes have been seen in the structure of the rural community. Chief among them are the following - after the independence, the rural community can be divided into four parts on the basis of ownership of the land available to them-
(i) Large farmers- who have land ranging from 2 to 10…

What is the dhamma of Ashoka

Although Ashoka's personal religion was Buddhism, he propagated some moral principles for the moral and spiritual advancement of his subjects, which are collectively known as Ashoka's Dhamma. For the moral upliftment of his subjects, the code of conduct which Ashoka presented, is called 'Dhamma' in his records. Ashok not only the cosmic life of his subjects, but otherworldly Wanted to improve life too. Hence, to fulfill this purpose, he established 'Dhamma' Features of Ashoka's Dhamma The purpose of Ashoka's Dhamma was to sanctify man's conduct externally and to internally purify his soul. On analyzing Ashoka's religious principles, we see the following characteristics under him-
1. Universalism- His Dhamma was universal. There was no place for communalism or any other narrow ideas in it. His rules were equally valid for all religions. He considered the whole world to be a family and strived for the good of the entire human race.
2. Essence of all re…

What were the causes of failure of the Revolt of 1857 and throw light on its importance.

In the revolution of 1857, all classes of people gave their support for independence, but this revolution failed. Historians give the following reasons for the failure of this revolution-
(1) Flare-up of revolution before the fixed date - Laxmibai, Nanasaheb, Tatya Tope, Azimullah Khan, etc. revolutionaries started a revolution on 31 May Planned to do. All this on this day freed the prisoners and killed the British officers and killed the British arms and There was a plan like looting the government exchequer, but at the same time, on March 24, Mangal Pandey started a revolution by taking charge and opposing the fat cartridges. Apart from Bengal, this revolution started in Delhi, Meerut, Kanpur, Allahabad, Banaras, etc. before the scheduled time, which became the main reason for the failure of 1857.
(2) Local form of revolution- Revolution of 1857 was limited to Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi, Madhya Pradesh, and some other areas. It did not spread throughout the nation. The revolution of 1…

Throw light on the literary contributions of Jagnik.

Jagnik has an important place in the poets of the Veeragatha period of folk literature. His time was believed to be between the 11th and 12th centuries. Jagnik was a court poet of King Parmar Chandel of Kalinjar and was a contemporary of Adi poet Chandbardayi of Hindi. Jagnik composed "Parmar Raso" and "Allhakhand". Although this poetry was not available in writing, it continued to be popular by surviving oral traditions.
"Alhakhand" belongs to the dynasty of Mahoba in which there is a story of 2 feudatories named Alha and Udal. The king himself was Bhiru and infirm, but his wife Malhna joined the war with the help of these heroes. At the end of the book, there is a compassionate scene All the heroes are killed and the queens become sati.
52 war in Alhakhand is described in the Ojmi style. From this point of view, it is the longest folk tale in the world. Full of gallantry and makeup Some of the poems of this poem are as follows- Live twelve years of poultry,…

Describe the World Heritage Sites of Madhya Pradesh in brief.

Madhya Pradesh, the heartland of India, is a prosperous state in terms of historical religious and natural tourist destinations. Three sites of the state are listed in the World Heritage List, while one is proposed. The World Heritage Sites of Madhya Pradesh are as follows-
(1) Khajuraho- The temples of Khajuraho located in Chhatarpur district of Madhya Pradesh were built by the Chandela kings between 950-1050 AD. Initially their number of (temples) was 85, which is currently 25. Here forever The temples related to Vaishnavism and Jainism have been built with sandstone. Kandaria Mahadev Temple, 64 Yogini Temple, Chaturbhuj Temple and Parvarnath Temple etc. are prominent. It was included in the World Heritage List in 1986.
(2) Located in the Stupa-Raisen district of Sanchi, Sanchi was formerly known as Buddhist Shreep Parvat. There are three stupas which were constructed by Emperor Ashoka and the railings around were built by Shringa rulers. The Buddhist University was established here i…