Monday, September 14, 2020

The Veto Powers of the President of India

The following three types of veto power are exercised by the President of India -

(1) Absolute Veto - Absolute Veto means not allowing the President to come to the Bill. In India, this veto cannot be used under normal circumstances. Because Article 111 clearly states that 'When a Bill has been passed by both the Houses of Parliament, it will be presented to the President and the President will declare that he gives permission or withholds permission on the Bill, but the President permits If the bill is not a money bill, it can be returned to the Houses for reconsideration as soon as possible after the Bill is presented to them. The bill is passed by the Houses with or without amendments and is presented before the President for approval, the President has to give his permission. The Money Bill cannot be returned by the President to the House because the Money Bill is introduced in the House only after the prior permission of the President. A full veto can be exercised by the President under the same circumstances - when the bill is official and introduced by a government that resigns before the president's assent to the bill.

(2) Suspense veto - When the President returns a bill other than the Money Bill for reconsideration to the House, it is said that the President has exercised the suspension veto. But after it is re-passed by the House, the President is obliged to allow it. 

(3) Pocket Veto - Under Article 111, the time limit for allowing the bill by the President was not mentioned. In the absence of a definite time limit, the President can exercise the Pocket veto, i.e. he neither gives his consent to the bill nor sends it back to the House for reconsideration. He lets Bill stay with him. He does this when he feels that the cabinet may collapse soon. In 1986, Parliament passed the Indian Post Office (Amendment) Bill. Some of its provisions were opposed due to press freedom. The then President Gyani Zail Singh neither allowed nor sent the bill back. As of now, the Bill is pending in the President's "pocket".

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