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Write an essay on regional imbalances and migration in India.

There is no doubt that India is one of the fastest-growing large economies today, but it is also true that among many problems, rising regional inequality and migration are also major problems. In fact, regional inequality should also be linked to migration because people in areas where there will be unemployment, less means of income, no basic amenities, will migrate to urban convenience areas. Hence the problem of regional inequality and migration is interlinked. At the time of independence, there were wide disparities between different sectors, which could be clearly seen in the area of ​​per capita income, per capita consumption, education and healthcare employment and infrastructure, etc. This inequality held serious signs due to initial political instability. It was, therefore, felt that states would have to play a major role in eradicating inequality. This commitment was reflected in the constitution and planning objectives, but achieving the objectives was not an easy task due to the strategic positioning of the ruling classes and the macroeconomic and departmental model of development adopted by the employers. Privatization Liberalization In the era of globalization, inequality of all kinds has increased. The disparity between rich and poor, between industry and agriculture, between the countryside has increased.

The following hierarchy of patterns of regional inequalities in India
is present-
(1) Broad area with the high level of development
(2) Different areas of development in low-growth areas
(3) Linear model of development
(4) Wide area of ​​low growth including scattered market centers
(5) Low development in mountainous regions

A figure of increasing regional disparities is as follows.

The per capita product of Delhi was Rs 668 in 1960-61, while that of Bihar was Rs 215. In 1990-91, this figure increased to 11057 and 2660 rupees respectively. This again increased to Rs 252011 and Rs 34850 respectively in 2014-15. Looking at the ratio, the ratio of per capita product of Delhi and Bihar in 1960-61 was almost three times which increased to four times in 1990-91 but in the subsequent twenty-five years, it increased rapidly to about eight times done. Delhi is the capital of the country, while Bihar, one of the poorest states in the country, has also shown increasing disparity between them.
That is how the capital and distant states are moving away from each other.

It can be said that due to the concentration of more rich people and headquarters of companies in the capital, there may be more per capita product there. But even if other more advanced states compare with Maharashtra, this inequality will be seen increasing. Yes, it is definitely that within Maharashtra itself some of the poorest areas of the country will be found, such as the region of Vidarbha.

There is a definite reason for this regional inequality to increase in the period of liberalization. With the implementation of the liberalization policies, not only did the governments pull their hands from the industry, but the state governments started competing to attract domestic and foreign capital. For this, more and more concessions and incentives were announced to the capitalists. Indigenous and foreign capital was attracted to the place where it was the highest. Now only the most left out could give the state, which was in better condition than before, that is, the income was more, which was more industrialized than before. In this way, a vicious cycle started which took the already enlarged territories further. They left behind and left behind.

Migration - The migration of the population from one area to another is called migration. Migration is generally of two types. Permanent migration and temporary migration. Temporary migration can be in annual, seasonal, or daily (between two cities) form. Depending on your place of origin and destination, the following types of migration can occur.

R - R to R
R-> U from village to town
U-> U from city to city
U-R from the city to the village

In some cases the population moves from the village to the small city and later to the big city. This can be called gradual migration. Migration impulses due to various attractions of a city
As a result of factors. Some people migrate to cities due to the effects of abjection factors. There are some impulse factors - unemployment, poverty, social
Insecurity, political instability, ethnic conflict, etc. Abjection factors may include better employment opportunities, education, entertainment, health care facilities, business opportunities, etc.

Migration trends in India

Two models of internal migration can be interstate and interstate.
Intra-state migration takes place within state boundaries, while in the context of inter-state migration, individuals cross the border of their state and settle in another state. According to the 1991 census, internal migrants whose the last place of residence and nomination have been designated as rural are classified from village to village. The largest number of rural immigrants are in West Bengal, followed by Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, second and third.

Effect of migration on India's cities-

The migration from rural to metropolitan cities due to non-concomitant urbanization in India has created many serious problems, which are destroying the entire urban environment of the country. Most metros and warnings are growing at a rate of alarm


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