The history of environmental protection in India is very old. Harappan culture was steeped in environment, then Vedic culture remained synonymous with environment-protection. Indian mystics considered all natural forces as deities. Surya, the source of energy, is considered to be the deity and calls him Surya Devo. Environmental love remained in medieval and Mughal India too. The British started the task of destroying the environment in India due to their economic benefits. Due to the destructive exploitation policy, the ecological imbalance in the Indian environment was visible in the British era itself. As a result of western influence, industrialization and population explosion among the people of independent India, Trishna woke up which gave rise to various types of pollution in the country. The Indian Constitution, which was enacted in 1950, was not directly linked to the provisions of environmental protection. The 1972 Stockholm Conference drew the attention of the Indian government towards environmental protection.
The Government amended the Constitution in 1976 to add two important Articles 48A and 51A (G). Article 48A directs the State Government to
He should 'ensure the protection and improvement of the environment, and protect the forests and wildlife of the country'. Article 51A (G) provides duty to citizens to 'protect and promote the natural environment and be kind to all living beings. After Independence, due to increasing industrialization, urbanization and population growth, the environment
Continued decrease. In the context of effective control and pollution in this lack of quality of environment, the government has made several laws and rules from time to time. The mainstay of most of these was pollution control and prevention. like-
The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974
Water Cess (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1977
Environment Protection Act. 1986,
Factories Act, 1948,
The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981,
Industries (Development and Regulation) Act, 1951,
Wildlife Protection Act, 1972,
The Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980,
Biodiversity Act, 2002, etc.
The above laws related to environment in India were created at a time when environmental pollution was not so widespread in the country. Hence, most of these laws have lost their utility, but still some laws and rules are making their important contribution in environmental protection. India took an initiative and set an example that you can also progress your country by harmonizing with the environment. India also appealed to BRICS countries to cooperate and work in this direction. Positive signs are also showing. The Government of India has decided to run similar campaigns in the future, such as - Fresh Air, Save Water, Save
Energy, Grow More Plantu, Urban Green etc. The purpose of all these campaigns is to protect the environment.