Eminent Rutherford, the famous chemist and physicist, who is considered the father of nuclear physics, in 1911 AD, proposed this atomic model. According to this model
(1) The entire weight and mass charge of an atom is contained in the center of the atom which is called the nucleus of the atom. The nucleus has a diameter of 10 "cm. In this all the protons are present.
(2) Electrons are distributed in spaces around the nucleus. Since the atom is neutral, the number of protons and electrons is the same.
Rutherford bombarded alpha particles on a 100 nm (100 nanometer) thin foil of gold. Photographic plates were placed around the gold foil coated with fluorescent material (ZnS, zinc sulfide). When he showered Alpha Karnes on gold foil, the following results were obtained-
1. Most of the alpha particles escaped from the gold sheet without being deflected.
2. The low fraction of alpha particles is deflected from a very low angle.
3. Very few particles (1 of 20000) returned from the same path ie 180 ° at the angle of superscript text. Rutherford has
1. Most of the atom is grit or hollow.
2. Few alpha particles deflected due to repulsion force. This shows that the positively charged part of the atom is found.
3. Rutherford calculated that the volume of the nucleus is negligible compared to the total volume of the atom. The radius of an atom is about 100 and the radius of the nucleus is 10 ".
4. The positive charge and mass of an atom are concentrated in a very small area. Rutherford called it the 'nucleus'.
5. Rutherford stated that the electrons in circular orbits around the nucleus are called orbits. In these orbits, the electrons move very fast. Hence this atomic model is similar to the solar system, in which the Sun is the nucleus and the planets are like moving electrons.
Rutherford's atomic model limitations
(Limitations of Rutherford's Atomic Model)
(1) Electrons accelerate continuously towards the center of the nucleus, revolving around the nucleus. According to Lorenz, the fast charged particle must radiate energy continuously. Therefore, while revolving in an atom, the electron must emit energy continuously and thus the radius of its path should decrease. Thus Rutherford's atomic model does not explain the stability of the proof.
(2) If the Rutherford model is true, electrons can revolve in orbits of all possible radii and therefore must emit a continuous energy spectrum. Although atoms give a linear spectrum like hydrogen.