The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistical index of life expectancy, education, and income indices, prepared by the three bases of human development. It was called by economist Mehboob-ul Haq
, Supported by economist Amatya Sen in 1990 and published by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP).
Health and longevity, educational level, and subsistence through three dimensions in the Human Development Index (HDI) calculation till 2009, life expectancy at birth, gross enrollment ratio and adult literacy rate, and per capita gross domestic product (PPP based), respectively Level is measured. Since 2010, the UNDP has used a new method for calculating HDI for human development report which includes three indicators:
1. Life Expectancy Index (LEI) - Life expectancy has been kept at the time of pre-birth for measurement of health and longevity.
2. Education Index (EI) - It is based on two new figures:
(i) Average years of schooling (MYS- Mean Years of Schooling) - Years spent in school by a 25-year-old adult and
(2) EYS - Expected Years of Schooling - The years a 5-year-old boy spends his life in school.
3. I-Income Index - Per capita GDP (PPP based) has been replaced with PPP based gross national income (GNI) per capita for estimation of subsistence.
Under the new method, UNDP has set the highest and lowest values for the dimensions of the above three indices, which are as follows:
(1) Life expectancy - highest 83.6 years and minimum 20.0 years.
(li) Average years of school term - highest 13.3 and minimum zero.
(lii) Estimated year of the school term, highest 18 and minimum zero
(iv) GNI (PPPS) per capita - highest $ 107.721 and lowest $ 100.