The form of Panchayati Raj / Rural Autonomous Institutions in India has been in existence since ancient times. Efforts to give it an orderly and constitutional form started since independence but it has been made practical in the Constitution in 73rd ed. And 74th no. The Act was passed in 1992, which fulfilled the dream of establishing democracy at the grassroots level.
Local self-government is the fountainhead of decentralized governance and 'participatory democracy', which also encourages political awareness and empowerment of the common man.
Constitution and functioning of rural autonomous institutions - Section 243 (B) provide for the formation of panchayats. In states where the population will be more than 20 lakh, there are three levels of panchayat functions, whereas)
It will not have intermediate levels in states with less population.
(1) Gram Sabha / Gram Panchayat at the lowest level
(2) Intermediate Panchayat - Kshetra Panchayat
(3) District level - District Panchayat
There will be a State Election Commission for the election of Panchayats, which will be appointed by the Governor.
In Panchayats It is mandatory to provide (1/3) reservation for SC / ST and women under 243. Anu. The tenure of Panchayats has been fixed at 5 years under 243 (E).
Functions of Panchayats
(1) Agriculture, village development-related work
(2) To arrange primary and secondary education
(3) Repair and maintenance of state drains, hand pumps
(4) Medical and Health-related work
(5) Management of work related to women and child welfare
(4) Livestock development work
(4) Allocation and management of ration shop
(4) To provide support to the government in public order.
(1) Not to hold elections by the state on time despite constitutional provisions.
(2) Feudal and influential people dominate rural politics
(3) Lack of clear rules for the empowerment of Gram Sabha.
(4) Not to make District Planning Committee financially competent.
(5) Lack of transparency and accountability.
(6) Excessive intervention of State Governments despite constitutional provisions.
(7) Lack of complete autonomy. Multiple disruptions in women's participation.
(8) Training and lack of qualifications among employees etc.