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What were the causes of the First War of Independence of 1857.

- As a result of dense policies of British Empire expansion and economic exploitation in India, husband discontent with British rule was emerging in different sections of society. The fury of Indians was visible from time to time in various places in the form of military revolts or mass rebellions. Regarding the reasons for the revolution of 1857, the Anglo historians have described military discontent and fat Cartus as the main reason for the revolution. But modern Indian history cars prove that the reason was hidden in the history of Mangal Pandey for more than 100 years. The fat cartridges or military discontent acted as a spark and ignited unintended explosive material. Therefore, the details of the reasons for the first freedom struggle of 1857 are as follows:

(1) Political dissatisfaction - Every policy related to the expansion of the British Empire was creating an atmosphere of fear and doubt, that is, the subsidiary treaty of Lord Wellesley, the principle of the best of Lord Hestrangs and Dalhousie's merger policy, each aimed at leading the British Empire to its climax. At the same time, the princely state of dissatisfaction with these policies started happening. Dalhousie's usurpation policy had frightened the princely states. By this usurpation, Dalhousie took illegal rights over the states of Satara, Nagpur, Jhansi, Berar, etc. Punjab and Sindh also merged with the diplomacy of the whites. Charles Napier was the one who stirred the company princely state by his statement "If he is made the Emperor of India for 12 years, there will not be a single princely state in India and Nepal will be ours and the Nizam has no name." Could hear. Indian Muslims were suffering from humiliating behavior with Bahadur Shah Zafar. Lord Kenning made it clear that the post of the Mughal Emperor would be abolished after the death of the emperor. This left him dissatisfied. Similarly, Indian artisan craftsmen And the soldiers used to receive honors and rewards under the princely states, so the fall of the princely states caused dissatisfaction with the expansion of the British Empire.

(2) Economic Discontent / Reason - The real purpose of the company's empire was economic exploitation. In the princely states where the British dominion was established, the Indian cottage and small scale industries were often killed and this was done to benefit the British industries. The unemployment resulting from this put pressure on agricultural land but agricultural land was insufficient for production. Increasing famines were making the farmers poor and British agricultural policies such as permanent settlement, Raiyatwadi, Mahalwari, were becoming a source of exploitation for every farmer. The old zamindars were becoming landless and each class ruled for its pathetic condition
Was agreeable.

(3) Religious dissatisfaction- Christian missionaries were allowed to preach religion under official patronage by the charter of 1813. The religious education system became the cause of Indian dissatisfaction. Indians were taught Christianity and made the study of the Bible compulsory. Similarly, a law was made in 1856 which stated that ancestral property could not be denied if Christianity was accepted. Betting
The abolition of the practice of sati by and the right of remarriage of widows by canning was also against Indian rules. The Hindu and Muslim religions were forcibly converted to Christianity and idolatry was criticized by giving breathtaking promises to Indians. In 1857, in the British Parliament, Morrison said that "The Creator has given us a vast empire of India so that we can hoist the sovereign flag from one end to the other". Therefore, the Indians were no doubt that it was a British conspiracy being carried out for the conversion of every class.

(4) Social conditions also became active for the social discontent / cause-1857 war. The doctrine of European supremacy abetted racism, according to which Indians were labeled 'hapsi or semi-human'. Indian Railways could travel in third class, their entry into hotels or clubs was prohibited. The British considered Indians barbaric, merciless, and dishonest. Similarly, British social reform
Laws such as the Prohibition of Sati Act, Widow Remarriage Act, Laws of Religion, etc. attacked the Indian social system, so every activity of British rule was viewed with suspicion.

(5) Administrative reasons - British rule was increasing Indian dissatisfaction. Indians viewed the British governance system with suspicion. The reason for this was the change in the law system, faulty justice system.
There was no direct contact with Indian British officials. That is, British rule worked like a machine. Where there was no place for emotions. Lord Cornwallis did not consider Indians worthy of high positions. Although the doors of government services were opened to Indians at the time of banting, hardly any work has been done on this act. The facility of salary and allowances to Indians was also not respectable. Therefore, this administrative discrepancy was also increasing dissatisfaction.

6) Military reasons/dissatisfaction - The real architects of the great freedom struggle of 1857 were the soldiers. The soldiers were dissatisfied with the annexation of the Awadh state. The soldiers were dissatisfied with the restrictions placed on religious symbols. A military rebellion is visible from 1764 on the inequality of pay and prices. Under the Military General Recruitment Act of 1856, the main condition of military recruitment in the company was that soldiers should travel abroad.

Will have to run This rule did not match the Indian caste system. Hence, there was a growing military discontent. Grease cartridges carried out the necessary spark to provoke military discontent. That is, the revolt by Mangal Pandey at Barrackpore Cantonment on 29 March 1854 due to the cartridges carrying the paper was the immediate cause of this revolution. As R.C. Mazumdar has written that any sensible person can see that the tunnel was ready, the car was also ready. anyone
The possibility could have easily sparked and the fat cartridges did this and the blasts/rebellions had rocked the British Empire with roots.


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