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Discuss the chief characteristics of the Constitution ofIndia.

Following are the descriptions of the key features of the Indian Constitution:

(1) The Constitution of India is "the longest and written constitution." An important reason for its length is the inclusion of provisions related to both the Union and the State. In it, the distribution of subjects between the Union and the State, the residual powers of the Union are mentioned, as well as the legislative administrative and financial relations of the Union and the State are described in detail. The Constitution currently has 448 Articles, 12 Schedules and 25 Parts.

(2) Its form is semi-perpendicular. The Indian constitution is confederate in normal circumstances, but in specific circumstances it also has the characteristics of unity.

(3) Generally, the Constitutional Statutes lack flexibility and invalidity, but the Indian Constitution has enough flexibility, but not so flexible that any part of the Constitution can be amended at any time. The nature of the Indian Constitution is evolving and changing over time.

(4) Initially, the Indian Constitution envisaged dual government, but at present the concept of three-tier government exists in the Indian Constitution - at the central, state and local levels.

(5) The Indian constitution emphasizes the balance between the three organs of government, hence its inclination is neither towards parliamentary supremacy nor towards judicial supremacy. In real terms it refers to a state of constitutional supremacy.

(6) Human rights are not explicitly mentioned in the Indian constitution, but attempts have been made to ensure social and economic democracy by categorizing them indirectly under the elements of Directorate of Rights and Policy.

(7) The Indian constitution considers sovereignty vested in the public and shows its faith in socialist, secular and democratic values.

(8) The Constitution of India ensures the human rights of its citizens as well as linguistic and religious minorities
Provides protection. In addition, it also provides for reservation for educationally and socially backward people.

(9) The Constitution of India envisages a single citizenship, a unified judiciary and a single constitution. Also, it does not come with the hypothesis of uniform state of all states. The situation in Jammu and Kashmir is unique.

10) British constitution has been taken in the Indian constitution where there is a distinction between nominal executive and real executive.

11) The Indian constitution incorporates the merits of the constitutions around the world according to Indian conditions and needs.

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