- The backdrop of the 6th century BCE religious reform movement was ready by the end of the later Vedic period. The environment of erstwhile social tension
The popularity of Buddhism increased due to the extensive changes in the economic field and the sacrificial religious beliefs that were sacrificial. Similarly, due to public love, the following are:
(1) Social causes - complex varna system and stressful social life. The class system got complicated from the later Vedic period. Its basis
Karma is not born. The society is clearly divided into two classes viz. In which Brahmins and Kshatriyas were divided into Vaishyas and Shudras without any means. The condition of the Vaishyas was becoming economically strong due to the permanent system of agriculture and the development of currency and the development of trade, but they did not have the highest respect. The worst situation was the Shudras who were considered servants of the three varnas. At the same time, the educational rights of women in the Vedic period had ended in this period. Hence; Buddhism was opposed to these evils, so its popularity increased.
(2) Economic Causes- The influence of the new economy was the occupation of the Aryans in the later Vedic period. They increased production using iron tools. Now a large number of animals were needed to pull the plow, but according to orthodox, religious beliefs, a large number of animals were sacrificed, which was not possible to stop. Hence, the people wanted a change in religious beliefs and rituals. Therefore, at this time Buddhism started this necessary change by formulating the principle of non-violence. Similarly, there was also development in the field of trade but usury was condemned in the religious orthodox system. Which affected the Vaishyas. And this class became opposed to Vedic religion and priests. Religious religions ie Buddhism supported the collection of money and usury.
(3) Religious reasons - The rise of the religious revolution of 6th century BC or another liberal religious system like Buddhism increased. Because yajna, religious beliefs with sacrificial fervor, priestly practice
It was natural for the reaction to be opposed to orthodoxy. Because they were exploited due to lower class religious rituals, due to which they started getting attracted towards the new religions.
(4) Upanishadic ideology - Rig Vedic Kalin Religious ingenuity and spontaneity had started to react against the religious rituals and the dominion of the priest from the latter part of the later Vedic period. It is expressed in the Upanishads. In the Mundakopanishad, the yajna was called a flying boat from which Bhavsagar cannot be crossed. Similarly, the emphasis was given to the asceticism of the Aranyakas. Therefore, new religions emerged in new ideologies and people were attracted to new ideologies.