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Write comment on 'Measuring Corruption' and "Transparency International'.

Corruption means corrupt + ethics - corrupt means bad or impaired and ethics means conduct ie corruption literally means conduct that is in any way immoral and unfair.
Corruption is a worldwide and complex phenomenon, it constantly comes out in its new form. Although many methods and measures of corruption measurement exist at present, there is no clear evidence regarding corruption and no definitive evidence of its intensity. The activities of unethical behavior and corruption are usually hidden, which makes the assessment of corruption more difficult. At present, there are several means of measuring corruption, which is described as follows-

(1) Corruption Perception Index (CPI) - This index released by Transparency International is the most popular. It is published every year.

(2) Global Corruption Barometer - It is also published by Transparency International.

(3) Bribe Payer Index - This index is also published by Transparency International.

(4) Promoting Revenue Transparency - This index informs companies according to their revenue transparency status.

(5) Anti-corruption of defense sector companies
Defense Companies Anti-Corruption Index - CI Its First Publication Year
Was done in 2012.

(6) Government Defense Anti-Corruption Index-GI - GI was first published in the year 2013. It analyzes the risk of corruption in the defense establishments of 82 countries of the world.

7) World Wide Governance Indicator-WGI - It is administered by the World Bank.

(4) Ibrahim Index of African Governance on African Governance - It shows the state of governance in African countries by the Mohammad Ibrahim Foundation.

(9) Global Integrity Report and Global Integrity Index - It is published by "Global Integrity".

Transparency International

Transparency International is an international non-governmental organization (INGO), which monitors corporate and political corruption internationally and disseminates information in this regard. Originally Transparency International was founded in collaboration with the former regional director of the World Bank, Peter Egan. Was formed in 1993 as a non-profit organization. Its other founding members include Hönsjörg Elsöst, Joe Githeno, Fritz Hinman, Michel Herschmann, Kamal Hussain, Dolores L. Espanol, George Moody Stuart, Jerry Parfitt, Jeremy Pope, and Frank, etc.
 In the year 1995, Transparency International developed the "Corruption Preception Index-CPI", which lists the countries of the world based on their corruption. The index is based on a survey of people. This index is published annually, that is, it currently publishes the annual "Global Corruption Barometer" and "Corruption Perception Index". Which shows the comparative situation of corruption in the countries of the world. Its headquarters are located in Berlin Germany.
In fact, this institution defines corruption in such a manner that by those who have power, that they should
It is obtained on the basis that the use of this power for its personal interests is corruption so that all people are affected. Certainly Transparency International, through its report, has introduced the world to the potential of corruption, yet this institution is also criticized on the grounds that it is weak in the method of measuring corruption and it is developing countries. Discriminates against. In 1999, Transparency International paid the bribe
Bribe Payers Index, BPI has also started publishing, which lists the countries of the world, according to the tendency of multinational companies (MNS) to bribe their countries. Transparency International has more than 100 local chapters (offices) and an international secretariat in Ballin, Germany. Each chapter used the method of assessment of corruption in their country according to their country.
While doing The International Secretariat provides assistance and coordination to these local chapters, as well as assesses regional and global corruption in collaboration with these local chapters.

The biggest success of Transparency International is that it has made corruption a global issue. Organizations like the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) now consider corruption to be a major impediment to the path of development, whereas earlier this topic had not received much attention. It was the efforts of Transparency International that initiated the "United Nations Convention Against Corruption" and the OECD's Anti-Bribery Convention.

Corruption Perception Index (CPI) - There is no doubt that in the countries of the world it lists people on the basis of their perception of corruption in relation to the public sector and public officeholders. 


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