Indus Valley Civilization (3300 BC to 1700 BC) is one of the major civilizations of the ancient river valley civilizations of the world. It is also known as Harappan civilization and 'Indus-Saraswati civilization'.
is . It developed along the banks of the Indus and Ghaghyar / Hakra (ancient Saraswati). Mohenjodaro, Kalibanga, Lothal, Dholavira, Rakhigarhi, and Hiappa were its major centers. This civilization was spread in the Indus River Valley, hence it was named Indus Valley Civilization. Due to the rise of cities for the first time, it is also called the first urbanization. Due to the use of bronze for the first time, it is also called Bronze Civilization. 1400 centers of Indus Valley Civilization have been discovered, of which 925 centers are in India. In fact, the Sandhav civilization was a developed urban civilization of its period. Which was spread over a large area Different scholars have presented different views in relation to how this civilization flourished in a wide area without leaving any mark or memory.
The views which scholars have expressed in the reasons for its downfall are as follows.
1. Ecological Imbalance - Opinion of Fair Service,
2 - Increased dryness and drying of ghaggar - d. Opinion of P. Agarwal, Sood and Amalanand Ghosh.
3 Changing the course of the river - The father of this idea is Madhoswaroop Vatsa. He believes that the reason for changing the route of Ghaggar river is the fall of Kalibanga. Lestric believes the same.
4 Flood - The signs of flood are clear from Mohenjodaro. Mackay sir believes that the Chahudaro also ended due to the flood, while S.K. R. Rao believes that Lothal and Bhagwatrao suffered severe floods twice.
5 Another type of water float - From the observation of sites like Mohenjodaro, Amri etc., it is known that another type of water plan has also happened in the Indus civilization. Stagnant water is obtained from some places.
The proponents of this idea are - MR. Sahni. An American water scientist R. L. Ricks also confirms this view and says that it was probably due to the earthquake.
6 External invasions - In 1934 Gaden Child raised the issue of the invasion of the Ayans, and Martimer Wheeler confirmed this view in 1946 AD. The following evidence has been presented in favor of this view.
Evidence of firefighting is found from the Nal and Dabarkot regions of Baluchistan. Skeletons of children, women and men are obtained from Mohenjodaro. The word Hariyupia is used in Rigvedra, its identity
It took place in the form of modern Harappan. Indra has been called Purandar, which means breaking the forts. In addition, John Marshall cited administrative dysfunction as the reason for its downfall and Arrell Stein's
This civilization is destroyed due to change, according to the change in climate, this civilization was destroyed.
Conclusion It can be said that no single factor is responsible for the decline of Indus civilization, but it can be said that different factors have been responsible for the decline of different sites.